4 CUPS OF TEA A DAY MAY REDUCE DIABETES RISK
Drinking at least four cups of black, green or oolong tea each day for 10 years was associated with a 17% reduction in the risk of diabetes, according to a review of 19 studies covering more than 1 million adults across eight countries. The review, to be presented at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes' annual meeting, found that one to three daily cups of tea was linked to a 4% reduction in Type 2 diabetes risk, and the researchers found no association between tea consumption and cancer risk. NBC News (9/17)
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4 CUPS OF TEA A DAY MAY REDUCE DIABETES RISK
Drinking at least four cups of black, green or oolong tea each day for 10 years was associated with a 17% reduction in the risk of diabetes, according to a review of 19 studies covering more than 1 million adults across eight countries. The review, to be presented at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes' annual meeting, found that one to three daily cups of tea was linked to a 4% reduction in Type 2 diabetes risk, and the researchers found no association between tea consumption and cancer risk. NBC News (9/17)
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ADOLESCENT SLEEP TIMES LINKED TO METABOLIC HEALTH
Adolescents who slept less than the recommended eight hours each night had higher average metabolic syndrome scores and a greater likelihood of overweight or obesity, compared with those who slept the recommended time, according to a study presented at the European Society of Cardiology Congress. "On top of stressing the importance of dietary habits and physical activity, adequate sleep needs have to be considered too," said researcher Jesus Martinez-Gomez.
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STUDY LINKS BREAKFAST TO PSYCHOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR IN KIDS
Eating breakfast or not having it, as well as the foods consumed and where it is eaten, may be linked to psychosocial behavior problems for children ages 4 to 14, according to a study involving 3,773 children in Spain. The research, published in Frontiers in Nutrition, found that both skipping breakfast and eating breakfast away from home were associated with behavioral problems.
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ADJUST CHILD'S SLEEP SCHEDULE BEFORE SCHOOL RESUMES
Children may fall into irregular sleep habits over the summer, making it difficult for them to return to a normal sleep schedule during the school year. Gradually moving the child's bedtime back by about 15 minutes every other night for two weeks before school begins, and getting them up 15 minutes earlier, can help avoid sleep deprivation and disruption once school begins; daytime exercise and avoiding electronics an hour before bedtime can help as well.
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ADJUST CHILD'S SLEEP SCHEDULE BEFORE SCHOOL RESUMES
Children may fall into irregular sleep habits over the summer, making it difficult for them to return to a normal sleep schedule during the school year. Gradually moving the child's bedtime back by about 15 minutes every other night for two weeks before school begins, and getting them up 15 minutes earlier, can help avoid sleep deprivation and disruption once school begins; daytime exercise and avoiding electronics an hour before bedtime can help as well.
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EXPOSURE TO KIDS LINKED TO PROTECTION FROM COVID-19 IN ADULTS
A study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that adults with young children -- and who were exposed to their colds -- were less likely to have severe COVID-19 illness, while adults without children had a 49% increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization and up to 76% increased risk of requiring ICU admission. Researchers examined medical records of over 3 million adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California between February 2019 and January 2021 and noted that the study was conducted before the availability of COVID vaccines.
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EXPOSURE TO KIDS LINKED TO PROTECTION FROM COVID-19 IN ADULTS
A study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that adults with young children -- and who were exposed to their colds -- were less likely to have severe COVID-19 illness, while adults without children had a 49% increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization and up to 76% increased risk of requiring ICU admission. Researchers examined medical records of over 3 million adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California between February 2019 and January 2021 and noted that the study was conducted before the availability of COVID vaccines.
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COVID-19 & OTHER RESPIRATORY ILLNESSES
HOW ARE THEY DIFFERENT

Your child has a stuffy nose, cough and fever. Is it a cold? The flu? Or are they symptoms of COVID? Some COVID, flu, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and cold symptoms can be alike. But there are some clues that set each of these common viruses apart.

Even with masks and vaccines, contagious viruses are still spreading that lead to sniffles, sneezing and coughing.

Is it COVID-19, the flu, RSV or a common cold?
Let's look at the viruses that cause four common childhood illnesses—COVID-19, flu, the common cold and respiratory syncytial virus.

All of them share some similar symptoms. This can make it hard to tell them apart. Here are some clues that help your pediatrician figure out what kind of respiratory illness is making your child sick.

COVID-19 symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, congestion, shortness of breath, sore throat, headache, sneezing, vomiting/diarrhea, or loss of taste/smell. COVID-19 symptoms can appear 2 to 14 days after infection.

Flu symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, stuffy nose, shortness of breath, sore throat, headache. Symptoms show up about 1 to 4 days after being exposed to a sick person. The infection can cause pneumonia.

RSV can cause a fever, cough, fatigue, stuffy nose, shortness of breath, sneezing, fast/short breaths, flaring nostrils, wheezing and grunting, poor feeding/no appetite, and head bobbing or chest caving in between and under ribs with each breath. Symptoms of RSV usually are worst on days 3 through 5 and last about 5 to 7 days. The infection causes a cold, which may be followed by bronchiolitis or pneumonia. RSV is common in late fall through early spring. In 2021, however, the pandemic caused a strange thing to happen. The number of RSV infections and hospital rates went up in summer 2021 instead. Nearly all children get RSV by their second birthday.

Common cold symptoms may include fever, cough, fatigue, stuffy nose, sore throat, sneezing. Colds are upper respiratory infections that can be caused by many viruses. A few common cold viruses are rhinovirus, adenovirus, human coronavirus, human parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus and RSV. Healthy children get about 6 colds a year.
Can kids get more than one illness at the same time?
Yes. Your doctor may refer to this as a secondary illness. For example, it is not unusual for children with flu or COVID to develop moderate or severe pneumonia. And cold symptoms can lead to another health problem like an ear infection or sinus infection.

Because some of the symptoms of flu, COVID-19 and other respiratory illnesses are similar, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends testing to confirm a diagnosis. People can be infected with both flu and COVID-19 at the same time and have symptoms of both.

How to avoid getting sick now that viruses are so unpredictable

Vaccines are an effective tool to prevent serious illness from the flu, COVID-19 and other vaccine-preventable diseases. Staying up to date on routine immunizations also helps others. The protection from vaccinescan help to keep people at risk of serious problems from flu, COVID-19 (and its complications, like MIS-C), and other viruses out of the hospital.

Everyone 6 months and older should get flu vaccines each year. Get your child vaccinated by the end of October to protect them throughout flu season, which can last until the end of May. Everyone 5 years and older are eligible to receive COVID-19 vaccinations.

There is no vaccine for RSV or the common cold. For RSV, some infants who are at risk of serious problems can receive an injectable medicine called palivizumab. It protects babies who were born significantly premature, had a heart defect or weak immune system.

There are many tools other to help stop viruses from spreading. Children should learn to cover their mouths and noses with a tissue when they cough or sneeze (and then put the tissue in the trash right away). Wearing a mask in public helps prevent COVID, flu and other viruses from spreading. And everyone should be encouraged to wash their hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

Remember
If your child is sick and you have any questions or concerns about their symptoms, don't hesitate to call your pediatrician. And if you had to delay visits to the pediatrician during the pandemic, it is important to catch up on immunizations, sports physical examinations and routine care.
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CHOOSING AN INSECT REPELLENT FOR YOUR CHILD
www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/at-play/Pages/Insect-Repellents.aspx?fbclid=IwA...
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CHOOSING AN INSECT REPELLENT FOR YOUR CHILD
www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/at-play/Pages/Insect-Repellents.aspx?fbclid=IwA...
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100% ORANGE JUICE'S ROLE IN FIGHTING INFLAMMATION

Dr. Taylor Wallace, CEO of Think Healthy Group, recently presented the latest findings on 100% orange juice and the role it may play within a healthy diet. His systematic review and meta-analysis published in the journal, Advances of Nutrition, suggested the potential for 100% orange juice to fight inflammation and oxidative stress among individuals that are both healthy and at high risk of developing chronic diseases. Findings suggest that drinking 100% orange juice may reduce interleukin 6, a well-established marker of inflammation, and helps pave the way for further research on the topic.
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AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS EXPERTS OFFER ADVICE TO HELP PARENTS THROUGH FORMULA SHORTAGE
Q: I found small quantities of several different formulas. What is the best way to switch among the brands?

A: It is likely that your baby will do just fine with different formulas as long as they are the same type. If your baby does not like the taste or has difficulty tolerating a new formula, you may want to try gradually introducing small amounts of it by mixing it with the usual formula. You can slowly increase the amount of the new formula. Be patient as it may take some time for the baby to get used to a new formula. Try not to give up unless it really isn’t tolerated. If you have questions about whether your baby is tolerating the new formula, call our office.

Q: I have a 3-month-old infant and can’t find my usual formula. What should I do?

A: This is a very difficult problem, and we’re glad that you contacted us. If you can find another similar formula, it’s OK to make the switch. If you use a special formula for allergies or other special health needs, you can find a list of comparable formulas at naspghan.org/recent-news/naspghan-tools-for-hcps-affected-by-formula-recall/.

Q: I have a 7-month-old infant and can’t find any formula. What should I do?

A: If your child is older than 6 months of age and usually is on regular formula (not a specialty product for allergies or other special health needs), whole cow’s milk may be a short-term option. In a pinch, you could feed your child whole cow's milk for a brief period of time (no more than one week). This is not ideal and should not be done for more than one week.

One concern about giving cow’s milk to a baby who is 7-12 months old is it does not contain equivalent amounts of iron to formula. If you have to use cow’s milk to feed your infant, ideally do so for as short a time as possible and for less than a week. It’s also important to give the baby plenty of iron-containing solid foods, such as baby food made with meat or iron-fortified cereals.

Q: My infant needs a specialty metabolic formula, but I can’t find any. What should I do?

A: Abbott is releasing limited quantities of Similac PM 60/40 and other metabolic formulas for patients in urgent need. Our office can fill out a request and if it is approved, the formula can be shipped to your home. (Pediatricians can download the form at www.abbottnutrition.com/metabolics and fax the completed form with a physician order to 877-293-9145.).

Q: Only one brand of formula is covered under the WIC program, but I can’t find any. What should I do?

A: Most states are allowing parents who use WIC benefits to buy other brands of formula or different sizes and types like ready-to-feed formula. (To find out what their state is allowing, pediatricians and families can check a map at www.fns.usda.gov/wic/infant-formula-waiver-status.)

Q: What is the earliest age I can start giving my infant solid food to stretch my formula supply?

A: Solid foods should not be used to stretch formula supply. Formula contains all of the nutrients young babies need, while solid foods may not. Infants generally are ready to eat solid food when they are 6 months old, but it depends on their rate of development. You can introduce solid foods as early as 4 months of age, but infants 4-6 months of age will continue to need breastmilk or formula to supply the majority of their nutrition.

Q: Is it safe to get breastmilk from a friend or online group?

A: We can’t know for sure whether breastmilk from a friend or online group is safe. It is better to obtain donor breastmilk from a local milk bank that is accredited through the Human Milk Banking Association of North America. To find an accredited milk bank, visit www.hmbana.org/find-a-milk-bank/.

Q: Can I make my own formula? I’ve seen a recipe online using evaporated milk that people say was used safely in the 1940s.

A: Homemade formulas are not recommended. Although homemade formula was used in the past, it also was associated with many risks to infants. Online recipes have significant safety concerns regarding contamination and nutrient concentration. Using homemade formula could harm your infant.

Q: Can I add extra water to formula and give my baby a multivitamin to make up the nutrients?

A: This should never be done. Adding extra water can dilute the levels of protein and minerals, and lead to low sodium levels in the blood and other electrolyte disorders, which could result in a baby needing to be hospitalized.

Q: How long can formula be used past a “best by” date?

A: Generally, formula should not be used past the “best by” date because it may not be safe or have the required levels of nutrients.

Q: I heard the government will be importing formula from other countries? Is it safe?

A: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to assure procedures are in place to verify production standards, labeling and shipping of brands that previously have not been sold in the U.S. European formulas are regulated by the European Food Safety Agency similar to how the FDA regulates formula in the U.S. and are highly reliable.
Q: I found small quantities of several different formulas. What is the best way to switch among the brands?

A: It is likely that your baby will do just fine with different formulas as long as they are the same type. If your baby does not like the taste or has difficulty tolerating a new formula, you may want to try gradually introducing small amounts of it by mixing it with the usual formula. You can slowly increase the amount of the new formula. Be patient as it may take some time for the baby to get used to a new formula. Try not to give up unless it really isn’t tolerated. If you have questions about whether your baby is tolerating the new formula, call our office.

Q: I have a 3-month-old infant and can’t find my usual formula. What should I do?

A: This is a very difficult problem, and we’re glad that you contacted us. If you can find another similar formula, it’s OK to make the switch. If you use a special formula for allergies or other special health needs, you can find a list of comparable formulas at naspghan.org/recent-news/naspghan-tools-for-hcps-affected-by-formula-recall/.

Q: I have a 7-month-old infant and can’t find any formula. What should I do?

A: If your child is older than 6 months of age and usually is on regular formula (not a specialty product for allergies or other special health needs), whole cow’s milk may be a short-term option. In a pinch, you could feed your child whole cow's milk for a brief period of time (no more than one week). This is not ideal and should not be done for more than one week.

One concern about giving cow’s milk to a baby who is 7-12 months old is it does not contain equivalent amounts of iron to formula. If you have to use cow’s milk to feed your infant, ideally do so for as short a time as possible and for less than a week. It’s also important to give the baby plenty of iron-containing solid foods, such as baby food made with meat or iron-fortified cereals.

Q: My infant needs a specialty metabolic formula, but I can’t find any. What should I do?

A: Abbott is releasing limited quantities of Similac PM 60/40 and other metabolic formulas for patients in urgent need. Our office can fill out a request and if it is approved, the formula can be shipped to your home. (Pediatricians can download the form at www.abbottnutrition.com/metabolics and fax the completed form with a physician order to 877-293-9145.).

Q: Only one brand of formula is covered under the WIC program, but I can’t find any. What should I do?

A: Most states are allowing parents who use WIC benefits to buy other brands of formula or different sizes and types like ready-to-feed formula. (To find out what their state is allowing, pediatricians and families can check a map at www.fns.usda.gov/wic/infant-formula-waiver-status.)

Q: What is the earliest age I can start giving my infant solid food to stretch my formula supply?

A: Solid foods should not be used to stretch formula supply. Formula contains all of the nutrients young babies need, while solid foods may not. Infants generally are ready to eat solid food when they are 6 months old, but it depends on their rate of development. You can introduce solid foods as early as 4 months of age, but infants 4-6 months of age will continue to need breastmilk or formula to supply the majority of their nutrition.

Q: Is it safe to get breastmilk from a friend or online group?

A: We can’t know for sure whether breastmilk from a friend or online group is safe. It is better to obtain donor breastmilk from a local milk bank that is accredited through the Human Milk Banking Association of North America. To find an accredited milk bank, visit www.hmbana.org/find-a-milk-bank/.

Q: Can I make my own formula? I’ve seen a recipe online using evaporated milk that people say was used safely in the 1940s.

A: Homemade formulas are not recommended. Although homemade formula was used in the past, it also was associated with many risks to infants. Online recipes have significant safety concerns regarding contamination and nutrient concentration. Using homemade formula could harm your infant.

Q: Can I add extra water to formula and give my baby a multivitamin to make up the nutrients?

A: This should never be done. Adding extra water can dilute the levels of protein and minerals, and lead to low sodium levels in the blood and other electrolyte disorders, which could result in a baby needing to be hospitalized.

Q: How long can formula be used past a “best by” date?

A: Generally, formula should not be used past the “best by” date because it may not be safe or have the required levels of nutrients.

Q: I heard the government will be importing formula from other countries? Is it safe?

A: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to assure procedures are in place to verify production standards, labeling and shipping of brands that previously have not been sold in the U.S. European formulas are regulated by the European Food Safety Agency similar to how the FDA regulates formula in the U.S. and are highly reliable.Q: I found small quantities of several different formulas. What is the best way to switch among the brands?

A: It is likely that your baby will do just fine with different formulas as long as they are the same type. If your baby does not like the taste or has difficulty tolerating a new formula, you may want to try gradually introducing small amounts of it by mixing it with the usual formula. You can slowly increase the amount of the new formula. Be patient as it may take some time for the baby to get used to a new formula. Try not to give up unless it really isn’t tolerated. If you have questions about whether your baby is tolerating the new formula, call our office.

Q: I have a 3-month-old infant and can’t find my usual formula. What should I do?

A: This is a very difficult problem, and we’re glad that you contacted us. If you can find another similar formula, it’s OK to make the switch. If you use a special formula for allergies or other special health needs, you can find a list of comparable formulas at naspghan.org/recent-news/naspghan-tools-for-hcps-affected-by-formula-recall/.

Q: I have a 7-month-old infant and can’t find any formula. What should I do?

A: If your child is older than 6 months of age and usually is on regular formula (not a specialty product for allergies or other special health needs), whole cow’s milk may be a short-term option. In a pinch, you could feed your child whole cow's milk for a brief period of time (no more than one week). This is not ideal and should not be done for more than one week.

One concern about giving cow’s milk to a baby who is 7-12 months old is it does not contain equivalent amounts of iron to formula. If you have to use cow’s milk to feed your infant, ideally do so for as short a time as possible and for less than a week. It’s also important to give the baby plenty of iron-containing solid foods, such as baby food made with meat or iron-fortified cereals.

Q: My infant needs a specialty metabolic formula, but I can’t find any. What should I do?

A: Abbott is releasing limited quantities of Similac PM 60/40 and other metabolic formulas for patients in urgent need. Our office can fill out a request and if it is approved, the formula can be shipped to your home. (Pediatricians can download the form at www.abbottnutrition.com/metabolics and fax the completed form with a physician order to 877-293-9145.).

Q: Only one brand of formula is covered under the WIC program, but I can’t find any. What should I do?

A: Most states are allowing parents who use WIC benefits to buy other brands of formula or different sizes and types like ready-to-feed formula. (To find out what their state is allowing, pediatricians and families can check a map at www.fns.usda.gov/wic/infant-formula-waiver-status.)

Q: What is the earliest age I can start giving my infant solid food to stretch my formula supply?

A: Solid foods should not be used to stretch formula supply. Formula contains all of the nutrients young babies need, while solid foods may not. Infants generally are ready to eat solid food when they are 6 months old, but it depends on their rate of development. You can introduce solid foods as early as 4 months of age, but infants 4-6 months of age will continue to need breastmilk or formula to supply the majority of their nutrition.

Q: Is it safe to get breastmilk from a friend or online group?

A: We can’t know for sure whether breastmilk from a friend or online group is safe. It is better to obtain donor breastmilk from a local milk bank that is accredited through the Human Milk Banking Association of North America. To find an accredited milk bank, visit www.hmbana.org/find-a-milk-bank/.

Q: Can I make my own formula? I’ve seen a recipe online using evaporated milk that people say was used safely in the 1940s.

A: Homemade formulas are not recommended. Although homemade formula was used in the past, it also was associated with many risks to infants. Online recipes have significant safety concerns regarding contamination and nutrient concentration. Using homemade formula could harm your infant.

Q: Can I add extra water to formula and give my baby a multivitamin to make up the nutrients?

A: This should never be done. Adding extra water can dilute the levels of protein and minerals, and lead to low sodium levels in the blood and other electrolyte disorders, which could result in a baby needing to be hospitalized.

Q: How long can formula be used past a “best by” date?

A: Generally, formula should not be used past the “best by” date because it may not be safe or have the required levels of nutrients.

Q: I heard the government will be importing formula from other countries? Is it safe?

A: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to assure procedures are in place to verify production standards, labeling and shipping of brands that previously have not been sold in the U.S. European formulas are regulated by the European Food Safety Agency similar to how the FDA regulates formula in the U.S. and are highly reliable.Q: I found small quantities of several different formulas. What is the best way to switch among the brands?

A: It is likely that your baby will do just fine with different formulas as long as they are the same type. If your baby does not like the taste or has difficulty tolerating a new formula, you may want to try gradually introducing small amounts of it by mixing it with the usual formula. You can slowly increase the amount of the new formula. Be patient as it may take some time for the baby to get used to a new formula. Try not to give up unless it really isn’t tolerated. If you have questions about whether your baby is tolerating the new formula, call our office.

Q: I have a 3-month-old infant and can’t find my usual formula. What should I do?

A: This is a very difficult problem, and we’re glad that you contacted us. If you can find another similar formula, it’s OK to make the switch. If you use a special formula for allergies or other special health needs, you can find a list of comparable formulas at naspghan.org/recent-news/naspghan-tools-for-hcps-affected-by-formula-recall/.

Q: I have a 7-month-old infant and can’t find any formula. What should I do?

A: If your child is older than 6 months of age and usually is on regular formula (not a specialty product for allergies or other special health needs), whole cow’s milk may be a short-term option. In a pinch, you could feed your child whole cow's milk for a brief period of time (no more than one week). This is not ideal and should not be done for more than one week.

One concern about giving cow’s milk to a baby who is 7-12 months old is it does not contain equivalent amounts of iron to formula. If you have to use cow’s milk to feed your infant, ideally do so for as short a time as possible and for less than a week. It’s also important to give the baby plenty of iron-containing solid foods, such as baby food made with meat or iron-fortified cereals.

Q: My infant needs a specialty metabolic formula, but I can’t find any. What should I do?

A: Abbott is releasing limited quantities of Similac PM 60/40 and other metabolic formulas for patients in urgent need. Our office can fill out a request and if it is approved, the formula can be shipped to your home. (Pediatricians can download the form at www.abbottnutrition.com/metabolics and fax the completed form with a physician order to 877-293-9145.).

Q: Only one brand of formula is covered under the WIC program, but I can’t find any. What should I do?

A: Most states are allowing parents who use WIC benefits to buy other brands of formula or different sizes and types like ready-to-feed formula. (To find out what their state is allowing, pediatricians and families can check a map at www.fns.usda.gov/wic/infant-formula-waiver-status.)

Q: What is the earliest age I can start giving my infant solid food to stretch my formula supply?

A: Solid foods should not be used to stretch formula supply. Formula contains all of the nutrients young babies need, while solid foods may not. Infants generally are ready to eat solid food when they are 6 months old, but it depends on their rate of development. You can introduce solid foods as early as 4 months of age, but infants 4-6 months of age will continue to need breastmilk or formula to supply the majority of their nutrition.

Q: Is it safe to get breastmilk from a friend or online group?

A: We can’t know for sure whether breastmilk from a friend or online group is safe. It is better to obtain donor breastmilk from a local milk bank that is accredited through the Human Milk Banking Association of North America. To find an accredited milk bank, visit www.hmbana.org/find-a-milk-bank/.

Q: Can I make my own formula? I’ve seen a recipe online using evaporated milk that people say was used safely in the 1940s.

A: Homemade formulas are not recommended. Although homemade formula was used in the past, it also was associated with many risks to infants. Online recipes have significant safety concerns regarding contamination and nutrient concentration. Using homemade formula could harm your infant.

Q: Can I add extra water to formula and give my baby a multivitamin to make up the nutrients?

A: This should never be done. Adding extra water can dilute the levels of protein and minerals, and lead to low sodium levels in the blood and other electrolyte disorders, which could result in a baby needing to be hospitalized.

Q: How long can formula be used past a “best by” date?

A: Generally, formula should not be used past the “best by” date because it may not be safe or have the required levels of nutrients.

Q: I heard the government will be importing formula from other countries? Is it safe?

A: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to assure procedures are in place to verify production standards, labeling and shipping of brands that previously have not been sold in the U.S. European formulas are regulated by the European Food Safety Agency similar to how the FDA regulates formula in the U.S. and are highly reliable.
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30 EASY HEALTHY SNACKS FOR KIDS
www.goodhousekeeping.com/health/diet-nutrition/a40156696/healthy-snacks-for-kids/
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AGENCIES INVESTIGATE MONKEY POX CASES IN US
Officials from the CDC and the Florida Department of Health are looking into a possible monkeypox infection in Broward County, Fla., after confirming one case each in Massachusetts and New York City last week. The World Health Organization had recorded 28 suspected and 92 confirmed monkeypox infections in 12 countries as of Saturday, but White House COVID-19 response coordinator Dr. Ashish Jha said monkeypox does not spread as readily as SARS-CoV-2, and the availability of vaccines and treatments leaves him "confident we're going to be able to keep our arms around it." Full Story: Reuters (5/23), CNN (5/22)
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36% OF CHILDREN IN US HAVE MYOPIA, MOST LIKELY RELATED TO VIEWING BEHAVIOR WITH MOBILE DEVICES
Researchers used data from the 2020 US Census to estimate that the prevalence of myopia in children was 36.1%, according to a study presented at the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology's meeting. The rate in rural areas was 15.7%, compared with 41% in urban areas
www.healio.com/news/ophthalmology/20200520/childrens-viewing-behavior-with-mobile-devices-may-aff...
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STUDY LINKS LOW VITAMIN D TO HIGHER BREAST CANCER RISK
A study in the journal Cancer linked low vitamin D concentrations to a higher risk of breast cancer for Hispanic and Black women, compared with having sufficient vitamin D. "Because women who identify as members of these groups have lower vitamin D levels, on average, than non-Hispanic white women, they could potentially receive enhanced health benefits from interventions promoting vitamin D intake," researcher Katie O'Brien said. Full Story: Healio (free registration)/HemOnc Today (4/25)
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COVID-19VACCINE BOOSTER INCREASES IMMUNE DEFENSES IN SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN, PARTUCULARLY AGAINST OMICRON VARIANT
A Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine booster in children ages 5-11 years significantly increased neutralizing antibody titers against the omicron variant with no new safety concerns, according to new data from the manufacturers.

“These data reinforce the potential function of a third dose of the vaccine in maintaining high levels of protection against the virus in this age group,” the companies said in a news release.

The data have not been formally peer reviewed or published in a journal. They are based on clinical trials with 140 children who received a 10-microgram booster six months after their two-dose primary series. The dose is one-third of the adolescent and adult dose.

In the trials, there was a six-fold increase in SARS-CoV-2 wild-type strain-neutralizing geometric mean titers one month after a booster compared to one month after the second dose. An analysis with 30 of the children showed a 36-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers against the omicron variant compared to the level after the second dose.

The third doses were well-tolerated and did not generate new safety concerns, according to the manufacturers.

Pfizer and BioNTech plan to request emergency use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration in the next few days. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices is scheduled to meet April 20 to discuss boosters, although it hasn’t announced which brand or age group it will discuss.

Children ages 5-11 years became eligible for COVID-19 vaccines in early November 2021. About 28% of this age group has been fully vaccinated, according to CDC data.
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SHORTAGE OF BABY FORMULA IN US
USA Today (4/9) reported, “Less than two months after a baby formula recall, retailers are reporting shortages with some stores rationing sales.” About “30% of popular baby formula brands may be sold out at retailers across the U.S., according to an analysis by Datasembly, which assessed supplies at more than 11,000 stores.” Datasembly CEO Ben Reich said, “Inflation, supply chain shortages, and product recalls have brought an unprecedented amount of volatility to the category, and we expect to continue to see baby formula as one of the most affected categories in the market.”

HealthDay (4/8) reported, “Manufacturers are boosting production to meet the demand for baby formula, according to a recent statement posted on the Infant Nutrition Council of America’s website.”
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ADDING PRODUCE TO WATER MAY HELP BOOST HYDRATION FOR ALL AGE GROUPS
Adding lemon or lime to water provides about the same nutrition, and it can help boost hydration, according to registered dietitian Angie Asche. "I am a big fan of adding any produce in general to water to help add some flavor to it," Asche said. "A few of my personal favorites are sliced strawberries or cucumbers."
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COVID-19 TO GREATER TYPE 2 DIABETES RISK THAN OTHER RESPIRATORY ILLNESS
Patients who had a mild case of COVID-19 had a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who had an acute upper respiratory infection, according to a study in the journal Diabetologia. The link may be explained by upregulation of the immune system after recovery from COVID-19, which could lead to pancreatic beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance, researcher Wolfgang Rathmann said./Endocrine Today (3/17)
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GROWING EVIDENCE SUGGESTS YOUNG CHILDREN ARE FALLING BEHIND IN READING
The New York Times (3/8) reports, “As the pandemic enters its third year, a cluster of new studies now show that about a third of children in the youngest grades are missing reading benchmarks, up significantly from before the pandemic.” Younger students “in every demographic group have been affected, but Black and Hispanic children, as well as those from low-income families, those with disabilities and those who are not fluent in English, have fallen the furthest behind.”
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SWEET POPATOES CAN HELP PROMOTE ENERGY AND GUT HEALTH
Both white and sweet potatoes offer plenty of vitamins and minerals, though registered dietitian Amy Schwarz says white potatoes contain more potassium, while sweet potatoes have more fiber and vitamin A. RD Alex Aldeborgh says sweet potatoes may help promote gut and eye health, while Schwarz adds that they can help provide energy, and both dietitians agree they are associated with heart health
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COVID-19 VACCINATION DURING PREGNANCY
This large population-based study found no evident differences between newborns of women who received mRNA vaccination during pregnancy, vs those of women who were not vaccinated, and contributes to current evidence in establishing the safety of prenatal vaccine exposure to the newborns. JAMA Pediatrics, 02/10/22
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OMICRON VARIANT MAY BE MORE DANGEROUS FOR CHILDREN THAN PREVIOUS STRAINS, STUDY SUGGESTS

Bloomberg (1/19) reports “the Omicron variant may be more dangerous for children than earlier coronavirus strains,” according to study data analyzed by the National Institute for Communicable Diseases of South Africa. Bloomberg adds, “Data from the 56,164 Covid-19-related hospital admissions among the more than 2 million beneficiaries of the Government Employees Medical Scheme found that the admission rate for children under the age of four was 49% higher during the Omicron wave than for Delta.” What’s more, “admissions were 25% higher for those aged 4 to 18 than in the delta wave,” the data showed.
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24%OF US HOSPITALS REPORT CRITICAL STAFF SHORTAGES
Please protect yourself and try to stay away from the hospital.
You may not get adequate care you need.

Twenty-four percent of US hospitals were experiencing critical shortages in staff as of Saturday, and over 100 additional facilities expect to face a shortage within the coming week amid the latest COVID-19 surge. More than 138,000 people in the US were hospitalized with COVID-19 as of Saturday, and many health care workers are either infected or under quarantine after exposure, prompting some hospitals to scale back nonessential care.
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CHILDREN AND COVID-19
STATE-LEVEL DATA REPORT
American Academy of Pediatrics

Cumulative Number of Child COVID-19 Cases*
8,471,003 total child COVID-19 cases reported, and children represented 17.4% (8,471,003/48,641,190) of all cases
Overall rate: 11,255 cases per 100,000 children in the population
Change in Child COVID-19 Cases*
580,247 child COVID-19 cases were reported the past week from 12/30/21-1/6/22 (7,890,756 to 8,471,003) and children represented 17.3% (580,247/3,346,656) of the weekly reported cases
Over two weeks, 12/23/21-1/6/22, there was a 12% increase in the cumulated number of child COVID-19 cases since the beginning of the pandemic (905,587 cases added (7,565,416 to 8,471,003))

Cumulative Hospitalizations (24 states and NYC reported)*
Among states reporting, children ranged from 1.7%-4.3% of their total cumulated hospitalizations, and 0.1%-1.6% of all their child COVID-19 cases resulted in hospitalization

Cumulative Mortality (46 states, NYC, PR and GU reported)*
Among states reporting, children were 0.00%-0.27% of all COVID-19 deaths, and 5 states reported zero child deaths
​In states reporting, 0.00%-0.02% of all child COVID-19 cases resulted in death
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FOODS WITH VITAMIN C AND OMEGA-3S MAY HELP SUPPORT IMMUNE SYSTEM
Foods rich in vitamin C and omega-3 fatty acids may boost the immune system and help slow aging, says registered dietitian Jenn Blaser. Citrus fruits, such as clementines, grapefruit and oranges, are good picks this time of year for vitamin C, and salmon and tuna twice per week can help the body stave off illness
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EXPERTS SAY OMICRON NOT MORE THREATENING TO CHILDREN DESPITE SPIKE IN HOSPITALIZATIONS
The New York Times (12/28) reports “the latest coronavirus surge sweeping the United States, much of it driven by the highly contagious Omicron variant, has produced a worrisome spike in hospitalizations among children.” However, “even as experts expressed concern about a marked jump in hospitalizations – an increase more than double that among adults – doctors and researchers said they were not seeing evidence that Omicron was more threatening to children.” The Times adds, “In the week ending Dec. 23, about 199,000 childhood cases were reported nationally, a 50 percent increase compared with the beginning of December, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics.”
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STUDY: COW'S MILK PRODUCTS MAY RAISE DIABETES AND ASTHMA RISK
High intake of cow milk products may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes among genetically predisposed children, according to a study in the journal Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. The study also found milk products that have been exposed to high temperatures, including infant formula but not pasteurized milk products, also may increase the risk of asthma.
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OMICRON, A NEW VARIANT OF CONCERN: WHAT IS IT? WHAT DO WE KNOW? WHAT CAN WE DO?

COVID-19 Newsletter, December 8, 2021

A new variant called Omicron was identified in South Africa and designated a variant of concern by the World Health Organization on November 26th and by the Centers for Disease Control on November 30th.

Omicron has an unusual number of mutations, more than 30 of which are in the spike protein, which is the “door key” the virus uses to enter and infect humans. This could be concerning because mutations to the spike protein could increase how contagious the virus is or if it has the ability to escape from vaccine protection.

Early signs indicate that Omicron spreads quickly, as it is now the dominate strain in South Africa, where it was originally identified.

To date, there are over 35 countries that have identified Omicron cases so far including within the United States, including 3 so far detected in Los Angeles County as of today. At this point in time, it appears that current antigen and PCR tests detect the variant.

Scientists are racing to find early clues to these important questions and more understanding about Omicron is expected over the next several weeks.

What can we do now? The most effective tool remains the vaccines, and we encourage everyone 5 and older not yet vaccinated or boosted to do so with a sense of urgency. The vaccines are effective against the Delta variant and very effective against earlier strains of the virus, which gives us hope that these same vaccines will also provide some protection against Omicron.

Residents can walk-in to any Public Health vaccination site or make an appointment at the hundreds of sites across the county to get vaccinated. For more information, they can visit VaccinateLACounty.com.

9 newsletter image 1
Residents who have traveled for the holidays should also get tested if they traveled internationally or to locations in this country with high transmission rates, or they participated at gatherings and events with large numbers of people. There are free testing sites throughout the county and individuals can go to covid19.lacounty.gov/testing/ to find out information about where to get tested. Residents must also isolate if they have a positive COVID test result and quarantine if they are a vaccinated close contact with symptoms or if they are an unvaccinated close contact.

All residents across LA County should continue following masking protocols, which require residents to wear a mask when indoors or at large outdoor mega events - regardless of vaccination status. Individuals should also wear a mask when at any crowded indoor or outdoor events.

6 Holiday Tips for Staying Safe
holiday tips COVID-19
Calling All Parents:
Answering Your Top Questions About Children & COVID-19


CAN MY CHILD GET A COVID VACCINE?

Children age 5 and older can now get a Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine.

Adolescents 12 and older get the same vaccine as adults.
Children ages 5-11 get a version that is a smaller dose. It is given with a smaller needle made for children.
Both versions of the vaccines are given as 2 doses 21 days apart. They can be given at the same time as other vaccines.
Vaccines are free for everyone. You don’t need insurance and you will not be asked about your immigration status.
SHOULD I GET MY CHILD VACCINATED FOR COVID-19?

Vaccinating your child(ren) is the best way to protect them from getting COVID-19. Even though COVID-19 is milder in children, some get very sick or have lasting health problems after infection.

Children can spread the virus to others. Vaccinating your child can help protect family and friends. This includes people who are too young to be vaccinated and those who are at higher risk of getting very sick from COVID-19.

Vaccinating your child can help keep them in school and make it safer for them to take part in group activities. If your child is fully vaccinated, they won’t need to test to play sports. And they won’t need to quarantine if they have been in contact with someone who has COVID-19.



WHERE CAN I GET MY CHILD VACCINATED?

COVID vaccines are available at many doctors’ offices, clinics, schools, & pharmacies. Visit VaccinateLACounty.com to find a site near you. Make sure they have the right Pfizer vaccine for your child’s age and ask how parent consent should be given. Call the DPH Vaccine Call Center at 833-540-0473 8am to 8:30pm if you need help finding a vaccine, transportation, or in-home vaccination. Information is available in many languages 24/7 by calling 2-1-1.



WHAT ARE THE VACCINE SIDE EFFECTS?

Common side effects include pain, swelling, or redness in the arm where the vaccine was given, feeling tired, headache, muscle ache, nausea, fever or chills. These side-effects are a sign that your child’s immune system is building protection. Side-effects may affect your child’s ability to do some daily activities but should go away within a couple of days.



ARE COVID VACCINES SAFE FOR CHILDREN?

Yes. COVID-19 vaccines have gone through the most intensive safety monitoring in US history. The Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine has been rigorously tested and is safe and effective for adults and children. More than 11 million 12-17 year olds have already safely received the vaccine.

Serious health events are rare.

A small number of people have had inflammation of the heart (myocarditis and pericarditis) after getting a Pfizer vaccine. This is more common in male adolescents and young adults. Most cases are mild and respond well to treatment and rest.
Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) can happen after any vaccine but is rare. Everyone is observed after getting a COVID-19 vaccine. If a reaction does happen, it is treated right away.
Your child cannot get COVID-19 from any COVID-19 vaccine.

There is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines affects development or fertility.



WHAT SHOULD I DO BEFORE MY CHILD GETS VACCINATED?

Talk to your child about the vaccine, possible side effects, and what to expect. Do not give pain relievers before their vaccine to try to prevent side effects. Tell the vaccination site if your child has any allergies.



WHAT ARE SOME APPOINTMENT TIPS?

Play games or activities

Many vaccinate sites have coloring books, games, and other activities for children to have fun while waiting for their turn.
Factor in Timing

Younger kids have a harder time getting comfortable, so they may need extra time to feel more at ease. Vaccine appointments may take up to two hours.
Bring their favorite toy!

Bringing a toy or a friend along can make waiting in line less scary and more engaging for children.
Make them feel comfortable

Parents/guardians can hold children’s hands, have a child sit on their laps, or hold their child.
Bring a light snack and stay hydrated
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DELTA VARIANT MAY INCREASE STILLBIRTH RISK
A study in the CDC'S Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report found that women with COVID-19 were at an increased risk for stillbirth, compared to those without COVID-19. The findings, based on data involving over 1.25 million delivery hospitalizations between March 2020 and September 2021, found that people infected with COVID-19 during delivery had a 90% higher risk for stillbirth than uninfected people.: United Press International (11/19)
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WHAT'S MIS-C

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children, or “MIS-C”, is a post-infectious inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) seen in children, teens and young adults under 21 years of age. MIS-C affects multiple organ systems, specifically, cardiac, renal, respiratory, hematologic, gastrointestinal, dermatologic and neurologic. Although MIS-C is rare, it can be severe with approximately half of all MIS-C patients needing ICU care.
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VACCINATION MAY PROTECT BETTER THAN HISTORY OF COVID-19

Unvaccinated adults who previously had COVID-19 were more than five times more likely to test positive for the disease than people who had received either the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna vaccine, according to a study of more than 7,000 people who were hospitalized for COVID-19-like respiratory symptoms published in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. CDC Director Rochelle Walensky said the findings underscore the importance of vaccination for people who have had COVID-19
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J&J, MODERNA< AND MIX-AND-MATCH COVID-19 BOOSTERS

The Washington Post (10/21) reports, “Tens of millions of Americans can sign up to get Moderna and Johnson & Johnson boosters beginning Friday after” CDC Director Dr. Rochelle Walensky “endorsed recommendations from expert advisers that the shots are safe and effective at bolstering protection against the coronavirus.” The approval means “eligible Americans at risk of severe disease can choose any of the three boosters now authorized in the United States regardless of their original shot.” Walensky’s action – following Wednesday’s emergency use authorization by the FDA – “largely fulfills the administration’s August promise to make boosters of all three vaccines available to Americans, albeit a month later than promised and for a smaller group.”

The New York Times (10/21) reports a CDC advisory panel “on Thursday endorsed booster shots of the Moderna and the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccines for tens of millions of Americans.” The recommendation comes as the “pandemic is now retreating in most parts of the country, but about 75,000 people are diagnosed with the disease every day, and about 1,500 die from it.”

The Hill (10/21) says the “green light will also allow Americans to choose the brand of booster they receive. Some people may have a preference for the vaccine type that they originally received and others may prefer to get a different booster. CDC’s recommendations now allow for this type of mixed dosing for booster shots.”
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CHILDREN BORN TO MOTHERS WHO WERE OVERWEIGHT ARE AT INCREASED RISK FOR ADHD
The children of mothers who were overweight during their pregnancy might be more likely to develop attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, according to a study found in Translational Psychiatry. "The genetics we can't modify, but we can support women with reducing their pre-pregnancy weight if they have a high BMI (body mass index) and they are trying to conceive," said professor Alina Rodriguez of Imperial College London. Full Story: INews (UK) (9/11)
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HEALTHY PLANT BASED DIET LINKED TO LOWER COVID-19 RISK STUDY FINDS

www.massgeneral.org/news/press-release/Diet-may-affect-risk-and-severity-of-covid19
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YOUTH COVID-19 HOSPITALIZATION RATES ARE RISING

CDC researchers found that COVID-19 cases, hospital admissions and emergency department visits increased among youths ages 17 and younger from June through August, though ED visits and hospital admissions were lower in states with greater vaccination coverage last month. Another study also published in the agency's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report found that weekly COVID-19-related hospitalization rates among children ages 4 and younger have increased 10-fold since the emergence of the Delta variant. United Press International (9/3)
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US HOSPITALS ARE TREATING MORE PEDIATRIC COVID-19 CASES THAN AT ANY PREVIOUS POINT
The Wall Street Journal (8/22, Subscription Publication) reports Southern and Midwestern hospitals indicate they are treating a greater number of children with COVID-19 than at any previous point in the pandemic and are gearing up for more severe surges. The Journal adds that COVID-19 vaccination rates among children between 12 and 17 remain relatively low, according to American Academy of Pediatrics data.
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FINALLY, DOCTORS WHO ARE ISSUING INAPPROPRIATE EXEMPTIONS WILL BE DISCIPLINED. ALL EXEMPTIONS ARE BEING ENTERED INTO THE CENTRALIZED REGISTRY WITH DOCTORS LICENSE ATTACHED
Way overdue!
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ELEMENTARY STUDENTS ENDED 2020-21 SCHOOL YEAR ARE 4-5 MONTH BEHIND, REPORT SAYS
The New York Times (7/27) reports elementary school students in the US ended this school year four to five months behind where they normally would be in academic achievement, according to a McKinsey report. Students attending schools with mainly Black or Hispanic student bodies were six months behind, compared with four months behind for students in mainly white schools. The new report is “the latest indication that students who were already experiencing educational inequities were also hit hardest by the crisis.”
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SCHOOL MASK MANDATES ARE A RISING SOURCE OF TENSION AMONG PARENTS
NBC News (7/23) reported, “As the academic year approaches, a patchwork approach to masks is prompting ire from parents, regardless of which policy their children’s schools have chosen.” Some parents “feel it’s more necessary than ever to require masks as other COVID-19 mitigation measures, such as social distancing, are relaxed. Meanwhile, parents from New Jersey to California are filing lawsuits to have kids be maskless in schools.” The conflict among parents comes as top health groups issue conflicting school masking guidance; the American Academy of Pediatrics earlier this month recommended masks for all children this fall, while the CDC “has said that only unvaccinated students have to wear masks.” The parents that oppose masking in schools “argue that they are an impediment to learning and communicating” and point to the low pediatric hospitalization rate of just 2.3% “of total COVID-19 hospitalizations, according to American Academy of Pediatrics statistics.”

The Washington Post (7/24) reported NIH Director Francis Collins “said he trusts the AAP. ‘They will not be popular amongst parents and kids who are sick of masks, but you know what? The virus doesn’t care that we’re sick of masks,’ Collins said [last] Monday in an interview with MSNBC.”
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STUDY FINDS FLU SHOTS PROTECT AGAINST SEVERE COVID-19 SYMPTOMS

Individuals with COVID-19 who had not had a flu shot were up to 20% more likely to be admitted to the ICU and were up to 58% more likely to visit the emergency department.

The flu vaccine may provide some protection against severe symptoms of COVID-19, with a new study finding lower intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, sepsis, and stroke rates.

An analysis of patient data presented at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases found that the annual flu shot reduces the risk of stroke, sepsis, and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with COVID-19. Individuals with COVID-19 who had been vaccinated against the flu were also less likely to visit emergency departments (ED) and to be admitted to the ICU.

Several studies have found similar results, although this is the largest study of its kind, according to the authors. The research team screened de-identified electronic health records of more than 70 million patients worldwide and identified 2 groups of 37,377 patients.
But Flu vaccine is not a substitute for COVID Vaccination
To protect yourself and society please get both vaccines
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CHOCOLATE IN THE MORNING MAY LOWER BLOOD GLUCOSE AND BURN FAT
There is a one-hour window every morning during which consuming 100g of chocolate could reduce blood glucose and stimulate fat burning among postmenopausal women, according a study in The FASEB Journal. The findings also revealed that eating chocolate during this hour "reduced ad libitum energy intake, consistent with the observed reduction in hunger, appetite and the desire for sweets shown in previous studies," said researcher Marta Garaulet.
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HOT TOPIC!
SOME MINORS SEEK TO GET COVID-19 VACCINE AGAINST PARENTS' WISHES
The New York Times (6/26) reported, “A recent poll by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that only three in 10 parents of children between the ages of 12 through 17 intended to allow them to be vaccinated immediately,” and yet “many teenagers [are] eager to get shots that they see as unlocking freedoms denied during the pandemic.” In response, “some states and cities are seeking to relax medical consent rules,” to make it easier for minors to get vaccinated “without parental consent.”
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USA TODAY: CHILDREN'S BIRTHDAY PARTIES MAY HAVE SPURRED INCREASED COVID-19 TRANSMISSION RATES
USA Today (6/21) reports children’s birthday parties may have led to increased coronavirus transmission rates, researchers found after gathering “private health insurance data from 2.9 million U.S. households from Jan. 1 to Nov. 8, 2020. In counties with high rates of transmission, households were 31% more likely to test positive for the virus that causes COVID-19 within two weeks after someone had a birthday.” JAMA Internal Medicine published the study.
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STUDY TIES VITAMIN D LEVEL TO HEALTH OUTCOMES
A study presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology virtual meeting found that women with adequate levels of vitamin D had a 22% reduced risk of dying from breast cancer over 10 years, as well as a 27% reduced risk of dying from any cause, compared with women with vitamin D deficiency.
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MASK USE, VENTILATION CURB COVID-19 IN SCHOOLS
COVID-19 incidence was 37% lower in elementary schools that required mask use among staff members and teachers, according to a study reported in the CDC's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. The study also found that dilution measures such as using fans and opening windows and doors lowered the incidence of COVID-19 in schools by 35%, and when combined with high-efficiency particle-absorbing air filtration, incidence was cut by 48%
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DIET PILLS, LAXATIVES RAISE EATING DISORDER IN TEENS
A study in the International Journal of Eating Disorders found that teenage girls who took diet pills had a 258% higher risk of developing an eating disorder like bulimia or anorexia in the next five years. The findings, based on data from over 1,000 teenage girls who were followed for over 10 years, also revealed that those who used laxatives had a 177% higher risk of developing an eating disorder, compared with those who didn't use laxatives.
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HOT TOPIC!!!!
www.thepediablog.com/2021/05/04/covid-19-vaccines-fertility/
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AS COVID VACCINE GETS APPROVED FOR 12-15 AGE GROUP, THERE ARE FEW EMERGING ISSUES:
SURVEY FINDS DIFFERING PARENTAL RESISTANCE BASED ON GENDER, INCOME, POLITICS.
American Academy of Pediatrics reports:

"About 27% of mothers and 11% of fathers say they are extremely unlikely to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, a new survey found.

The data showed vaccine resistance differed based on parents’ education, income and political party and come as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is poised to decide whether to authorize the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for adolescents ages 12-15 years.

The COVID-19 Consortium for Understanding the Public’s Policy Preferences Across States, a joint project of Northeastern University, Harvard University, Rutgers University and Northwestern University, surveyed nearly 22,000 people around the U.S. from April 1 through May 3. They reported on those who said they were “extremely unlikely” to have their child vaccinated.

About 34% of those earning less than $25,000 a year were resistant to vaccinating their children against COVID-19 compared to 5% of parents earning more than $150,000 a year. Differences also were apparent by political party, with 33% of Republication parents resisting COVID-19 vaccines for their children compared to 7% of Democrats.

The survey also found parents who were younger and those without a four-year college degree were less likely to vaccinate their children. Vaccine resistance was similar among White, Hispanic and Black parents, while Asian American parents were less resistant.

In addition, the survey asked about school vaccination requirements and found about 58% of parents would support them.

Children and adolescents have been making up a growing share of new COVID-19 cases, reaching 22.4% last week, according to data from the AAP and Children’s Hospital Association. More than 3.78 million children have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 and at least 303 have died. The pandemic also has taken a toll on children’s mental and emotional health, social well-being and their educational experience.

Preliminary data from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna found COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness in adolescents of 100% and 96% respectively and no serious safety concerns. President Joe Biden said if the FDA approves a vaccine for adolescents, officials will focus on making vaccines available through pediatricians and family physicians. The AAP and CDC have guidance to help physicians combat vaccine hesitancy and prepare to vaccinate teens (see resources).

“Parents trust pediatricians,” the AAP said in its guidance. “We need to listen to parents’ questions, take the information and provide clear, consistent information.”

In the meantime, as vaccination slows among adults, federal officials said they are working to address issues of confidence, motivation and access by deploying trusted messengers to answer questions, asking pharmacies to take walk-ins, increasing mobile clinics and encouraging employers to provide paid time off. To find a vaccination site, people can visit vaccines.gov or text their ZIP code to 438829.

“The only way to get cases to come down and stay down is for everyone to get vaccinated,” Surgeon General Vivek H. Murthy, M.D., M.B.A. said in a press briefing Friday. “That’s how you can protect your community and help all of us return to the activities and the life we love.”""
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PFIZER-BIO NTECH CORONAVIRUS VACCINE IS BEING TESTED IN BABIES, WITH RESULTS EXPECTED BY SEPTEMBER

Reuters (4/29) reports the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine is being tested in babies as young as six months old, and results are expected by September. BioNTech CEO Ugur Sahin told German magazine Spiegel, “In July, the first results could be available for the five to 12 year olds, in September for the younger children.” Sahin added, “If all goes well, as soon as the data is evaluated, we will be able to submit the application for approval of the vaccine for all children in the respective age group in different countries.”
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MOTHER-to-NEWBORN COVID-19 TRANSMISSION
Researchers studied 255 babies, 88% of whom were tested for COVID-19, and found that only about 2% of those who were tested for the virus had a positive result. However, the findings in JAMA Network Open also showed that worsening COVID-19 in pregnant women may be linked to preterm delivery, accounting for about three-quarters of preterm births among the study group
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IN PERSON SCHOOL RETURN HESITANCIES
The Los Angeles Times (4/19) reports more than 75% of parents of school-age children in Los Angeles County say their children have been “substantially hurt” by being out of school, according to a UCLA survey. In the annual Quality of Life index survey, “Los Angeles County residents rate education among the worst of several factors affecting their quality of life, displaying one of the biggest drops in recent years among parents of children in public schools.”
Nevertheless,
Dr. Perri Klass writes in “The Checkup” blog for the New York Times (4/19) about the experience of children who have undergone physical changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. As more children return to school, some are anxious to return after gaining weight, undergoing puberty, or experiencing other physical changes, while their schools held classes virtually and they weren’t able to see friends in-person for over a year.
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PACIFIER AND NIPPLE SANITIZATION AND STERILIZATION MAY UP INFANT ALLERGY RISK
The findings, based on data involving 787 infants, also showed that infants who used pacifiers that were cleaned with chemical sanitizers at age 6 months had over three times greater risk of developing food allergy at one year, compared with those who did not use antiseptic cleaning, while no significant increase in the risk of developing food allergy was seen among infants when the pacifiers were put in their parent's mouth, rinsed with tap water, boiled in water or not washed at all.
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AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS OFFERS GUIDANCE FOR CAMP ATTENDANCE DURING THE PANDEMIC
www.contemporarypediatrics.com/view/aap-offers-guidance-for-camp-attendance-during-the-pandemic
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7 TIPS FOR HELPING YOUR CHILD TO WEAR A MASK
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that everyone over the age of 2 wear a mask while in public to slow the spread of COVID-19. Some schools will recommend or require masks as students return to the classroom this fall.

To make this transition easier for children, it's important that parents and guardians prepare them for prolonged mask wearing before school starts.

Here are 7 tips for helping your children get used to wearing a mask:
1. Explain why.
Children need to understand the reason why they will need to wear masks. Explain how masks prevent germs from spreading among people, and keeps others safe and healthy. Let your children's questions guide your conversation. Listen and answer their questions with facts in a way they can understand.

2. Demonstrate good mask etiquette.
Children model behaviors of the adults in their lives, so set a good example with your actions. Be consistent about wearing a mask each time you are in public. Show your children how to keep their mask over their mouth and nose. Explain that they should not touch or share their mask.

3. Practice at home.
Have your children practice wearing a mask for a few hours while at home. A good time to start is when they are allowed screen time, as they are more likely to forget about the mask. Have your children practice talking clearly while wearing a mask so others can understand what is being said. You can make practice fun while playing board, card or I spy games.

4. Play pretend.
For younger children, provide masks for stuffed animals and dolls during playtime. This can lessen any fears your children have with seeing other people in masks.

5. Get creative.
Allow your children to personalize masks with fabric markers or patterned fabric. There also are masks available with cartoon characters or sports teams that can showcase your children's personality and preferences. Your children could make a mask out of a favorite bandana or scarf, as well.

6. Take a photo.
Enlist the help of family and friends. Ask them to send your children photos of themselves wearing masks. In return, your children can send photos of themselves in a mask. Look at the photos, and reinforce how great your children, family and friends look in masks.

7. Pack extra masks.
As your children prepare to return to school, plan on sending extra masks each day. Children can be messy, and having backup masks on hand ensures they always have a clean mask to wear.
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7 TIPS FOR HELPING YOUR CHILD TO WEAR A MASK
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that everyone over the age of 2 wear a mask while in public to slow the spread of COVID-19. Some schools will recommend or require masks as students return to the classroom this fall.

To make this transition easier for children, it's important that parents and guardians prepare them for prolonged mask wearing before school starts.

Here are 7 tips for helping your children get used to wearing a mask:
1. Explain why.
Children need to understand the reason why they will need to wear masks. Explain how masks prevent germs from spreading among people, and keeps others safe and healthy. Let your children's questions guide your conversation. Listen and answer their questions with facts in a way they can understand.

2. Demonstrate good mask etiquette.
Children model behaviors of the adults in their lives, so set a good example with your actions. Be consistent about wearing a mask each time you are in public. Show your children how to keep their mask over their mouth and nose. Explain that they should not touch or share their mask.

3. Practice at home.
Have your children practice wearing a mask for a few hours while at home. A good time to start is when they are allowed screen time, as they are more likely to forget about the mask. Have your children practice talking clearly while wearing a mask so others can understand what is being said. You can make practice fun while playing board, card or I spy games.

4. Play pretend.
For younger children, provide masks for stuffed animals and dolls during playtime. This can lessen any fears your children have with seeing other people in masks.

5. Get creative.
Allow your children to personalize masks with fabric markers or patterned fabric. There also are masks available with cartoon characters or sports teams that can showcase your children's personality and preferences. Your children could make a mask out of a favorite bandana or scarf, as well.

6. Take a photo.
Enlist the help of family and friends. Ask them to send your children photos of themselves wearing masks. In return, your children can send photos of themselves in a mask. Look at the photos, and reinforce how great your children, family and friends look in masks.

7. Pack extra masks.
As your children prepare to return to school, plan on sending extra masks each day. Children can be messy, and having backup masks on hand ensures they always have a clean mask to wear.
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WE NEED TO SEND OUR KIDS BACK TO SCHOOL!
Strict lockdown was justified during Coronavirus infection surge to flatten the curve and have available hospital beds. Now numbers are looking much better, daily positivity rate is low. Most of the people at risk are vaccinated, so schools need to reopen!

A NEW STUDY FINDS THAT YOUNGER STUDENTS HAVE FALLEN BEHIND ON READING SKILLS
As students in some parts of the United States approach nearly a year without in-person school, new research suggests that the reading skills of young children have suffered during the pandemic.

The research, a preliminary national study from the group Policy Analysis for California Education, found that as of late fall, second graders were 26 percent behind where they would have been, absent the pandemic, in their ability to read aloud accurately and quickly. Third graders were 33 percent behind.

Those differences were equivalent to being able to read seven to eight fewer words per minute accurately.
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WE NEED TO SEND OUR KIDS BACK TO SCHOOL!
Strict lockdown was justified during Coronavirus infection surge to flatten the curve and have available hospital beds. Now numbers are looking much better, daily positivity rate is low. Most of the people at risk are vaccinated, so schools need to reopen!

A NEW STUDY FINDS THAT YOUNGER STUDENTS HAVE FALLEN BEHIND ON READING SKILLS
As students in some parts of the United States approach nearly a year without in-person school, new research suggests that the reading skills of young children have suffered during the pandemic.

The research, a preliminary national study from the group Policy Analysis for California Education, found that as of late fall, second graders were 26 percent behind where they would have been, absent the pandemic, in their ability to read aloud accurately and quickly. Third graders were 33 percent behind.

Those differences were equivalent to being able to read seven to eight fewer words per minute accurately.
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THE TRUTH ABOUT COVID-19 VACCINES

An Infectious Disease Specialist Debunks Myths Surrounding the COVID-19 Vaccines
The COVID-19 vaccines have been described by many as the light at the end of the tunnel and the best tool we have to stop this pandemic. But along with the vaccine rollout, there have been a number of myths circulating about their safety and effectiveness. To set the record straight, Cedars-Sinai's Newsroom talked with Priya Soni, MD, a pediatrician and an infectious disease specialist.

Newsroom: MYTH #1: The vaccine was rushed into development and might not be safe
Soni: "While the development of the COVID-19 vaccines using mRNA technology is new, scientists have been working on this technology for many years, in fact decades. We are very excited that they are now being able to use the mRNA technology for vaccines in a safe way. The reason it was developed so rapidly is because scientists were able to implement this technology since they had the RNA sequence of the virus as it was released in January 2020. This allowed them to incorporate the mRNA for the spike protein into the vaccine. Nothing about the clinical trials for the vaccines was rushed nor any shortcuts taken. In fact, the numbers of participants in the clinical trials for both Moderna and Pfizer were quite robust and very similar to the number of participants needed and required in prior vaccine studies."

MYTH #2: I'm young and healthy, so I don't need a vaccine
"COVID-19 is still a very unpredictable infection, and just because you are young and healthy doesn’t mean you won't have any of the complications of the infection that we continue to see. There are a few risk factors for severe disease that we have identified, but there’s still no guaranteed way to predict that you would have a mild or severe course with the infection. It is much safer and wiser to get the vaccine and deal with the slight discomfort and side effects temporarily than to subject yourself to the infection."

MYTH #3: The COVID-19 vaccine will affect my chances of becoming pregnant
"There has been no link between the COVID- 19 vaccines and a negative impact on female fertility. The data is reassuring regarding the use of this vaccine during pregnancy, and because the mRNA degrades so rapidly, it would be highly unlikely that the vaccine could cause issues with fertility."

MYTH #4: I can get COVID-19 from the vaccine
"What you may feel after you receive the COVID-19 vaccine is a mild fever, muscle soreness at the site of injection and fatigue. That is your immune system activating and starting to form the protective antibodies that it needs to fight off this virus if you are infected in the future. Compared to some of the live attenuated virus vaccines we have previously seen, the vaccine is noninfectious, so there is no way you can get COVID-19 infection from taking the vaccine itself."

Myth #5: I've had COVID-19, so I don't need the vaccine
"As far as we know, the antibody response that you are going to get from a vaccine is far more robust and more predictable than natural antibodies post-infection. Even if you’ve had COVID-19, it is a great idea to get a vaccine when you are able. Don’t forget to schedule your second dose for the vaccine as well. We also remind all those getting a vaccine to stick with the same platform–if you got Pfizer for your first dose, make sure you get the same for your second dose."

MYTH #6: I received the vaccine, therefore I don't have to wear a mask or social distance
"Vaccines are one of the many tools in our toolkit that we know can help prevent the spread of COVID-19. However, just because you received the COVID-19 vaccine does not mean you should stop wearing masks or social distancing. We are still trying to determine whether or not a person can spread the infection to others even when they are not infectious and have been vaccinated. Until we learn more, we should continue to do our part and remain masked and socially distant."
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MEDITERRANEAN DIET MAY SUPPORT COGNITION IN ADULTS

A study of more than 511 older adults in Scotland, published in Experimental Gerontology, revealed that those who followed a Mediterranean diet had better cognitive functioning compared with those who didn't follow the diet. Study researcher Janie Corley said that "eating more green leafy vegetables and cutting down on red meat might be two key food elements that contribute to the benefits of the Mediterranean-style diet.
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FLU VACCINATION TIED TO MILDER PRDIATRIC COVID-19 SYMPTOMS
A study in the journal Cureus found that youths who had been vaccinated for influenza were less likely to have symptoms if they were diagnosed with COVID-19. The findings, based on data involving 905 youths with COVID-19, also showed that those who received the pneumococcal vaccine were less likely to have symptomatic COVID-19 disease. Contemporary Pediatrics (2/5),
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DR. FAUCI SEES CORONAVIRUS VACCINATIONS FOR KIDS BY LATE SPRING OR SUMMER

Children represent about one-fourth of the population, and for the U.S. to reach “herd immunity," or widespread resistance, about 70% to 85% of the population must be vaccinated.
“Children tend to not become as severely ill as adults but they can still become ill and some have tragically died,” said Dr. Leana Wen, a public health expert and emergency room physician, who supports Fauci's goal. “Children can also be vectors of transmission, and getting children vaccinated is important as we strive for herd immunity.”
The FDA has not yet approved vaccines for children, due to insufficient testing data on safety and effectiveness for young people. But Fauci said data is being gathered now, through a process called “age de-escalation testing.”

For example, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine received emergency approval for use in people 16 and older. The next step, said Fauci, involves testing in children down to 12 years old, and if that's successful it's followed by another round of testing down to those 9 years old.
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ALLERGIC REACTIONS ARE RARE WITH COVID-19 VACCINES, RECENT REPORT CONFIRMS

A new study provides further evidence that anaphylaxis after COVID-19 vaccination is rare, occurring at a rate of 2.5 cases per million doses of Moderna’s vaccine.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and confirmed 10 cases of anaphylaxis out of more than 4 million Moderna doses administered over three weeks, according to a new Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

While monitoring will continue and advice may evolve, the CDC and FDA continue to support use of the vaccines.

“Widespread vaccination against COVID-19 with highly effective vaccines represents a critical tool in efforts to control the pandemic and save lives,” they wrote.

All 10 anaphylaxis cases in the report were females, although researchers noted more females than males were vaccinated. The median age was 47 years, and nine of the women had a history of allergies or allergic reactions to drugs, contrast media or food. The doses they received came from multiple lots of the vaccine, and there was no clustering in any one area of the country.

Symptoms occurred a median of 7.5 minutes after receiving the vaccine but ranged from one to 45 minutes. Six women were hospitalized, according to the report. Of those, five were treated in intensive care and four required endotracheal intubation. The remaining four women were treated in an emergency department. Researchers had follow-up information on eight of the women, all of whom have recovered or been discharged home. No deaths were reported.

A report earlier this month on the COVID-19 vaccine from Pfizer-BioNTech found an anaphylaxis rate of 11.1 cases per million doses. Like the Moderna cases, more females experienced reactions, most had a history of allergies or allergic reactions and symptoms typically began within minutes.

The CDC has emphasized the need for people administering vaccines to screen patients and to have the necessary supplies and training to recognize and treat anaphylaxis (see resources).

People should not receive a COVID-19 vaccine if they have a history of severe allergic reaction or an immediate allergic reaction of any severity to a previous dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine or any of its components, including polyethylene glycol. They also should not be vaccinated if they have a history of immediate allergic reaction of any severity to polysorbate.

People with a history of any immediate allergic reaction to any other vaccine or injectable therapy can receive the vaccine but should be counseled about the risks. Those with this history or a history of anaphylaxis due to any cause should be observed for 30 minutes after vaccination. All others should be observed for 15 minutes.
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LOCAL COVID-19 STRAIN FOUND IN OVER ONE-THIRD OF LOS ANGELES PATIENTS
Los Angeles County has emerged as one of the nation's COVID-19 hotspots. Through mid-January, the county had reported more than 1 million COVID-19 cases and nearly 14,000 deaths since the start of the pandemic. More than two-thirds of the cases were added since the beginning of November.
CAL.20C is distinct from the virus version identified in Britain—known as B.1.1.7—that is spreading in the U.S. and is believed to be highly transmissible. In Southern California, B.1.1.7 has been found in scattered coronavirus cases in Los Angeles, San Diego and San Bernardino counties. In contrast, the CAL.20C strain was identified in 36.4% of cases in the Cedars-Sinai study.
Researchers are investigating Vaccines efficacy against this new strain
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COVID-19 CAN AFFECT CHILDREN'S HEARTS
USA Today (1/1) reported that some children infected with SARS-CoV-2 can develop heart failure, representing another potential COVID-19 complication for children. The article adds that “since the pandemic began, there have been about 1,200 cases of MIS-C in the U.S. and 20 deaths, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics.”
Last month, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a guideline recommending that children and adolescents infected with SARS-CoV-2 should be cleared by a physician for heart risks before returning to sports.
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CHILDREN FACE GREATER RISK OF CONTRACTING CORONAVIRUS AT SOCIAL GATHERINGS THAN IN CLASSROOM, CHILDCARE SETTING, STUDY SUGGESTS
The AP (12/28) reports, “Children are more at risk of contracting coronavirus at a social gathering than in a classroom or childcare setting, according to a study released by the University of Mississippi Medical Center.” This “study found that compared with children who tested negative, those who tested positive were more likely to have attended gatherings and have had visitors at home,” and “parents or guardians of children who were infected were less likely to report wearing masks at those gatherings.” The study “was featured in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Dec. 18 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
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STUDY: WINE, CHEESE AND LAMB MAY PROTECT AGAINST COGNITIVE DECLINE
www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/study-cheese-red-wine-could-boost-brain-health-212807768.html
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COVID-19 VACCINATION CARDS WILL BE DOUBLE VERIFIABLE
ALL VACCINATIONS WILL BE REPORTED TO CENTRALIZED VACCINE REGISTRY, AND VACCINATIONS WILL BE RANDOMLY VERIFIED WITH HEALTH CARE FACILITY WHICH ADMINISTERED THE VACCINE

edition.cnn.com/2020/12/02/health/covid-19-vaccination-kit-record-card/index.html
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MMR VACCINE MAY PROTECT AGAINST SEVERE ILLNESS FROM COVID-19, STUDY FINDS
www.upi.com/Health_News/2020/11/20/MMR-vaccine-may-protect-against-severe-illness-from-COVID-19-s...
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PARENTING IN PANDEMIC: TIPS TO KEEP CALM AT HOME

Here are some tips from the American Academy (AAP) to help your family get through the stress of the pandemic. ​

Address children's fears
Children rely on their parents for safety, both physical and emotional. Reassure your children that you are there for them and that your family will get through this together.

Answer questions about the pandemic simply & honestly. Talk with children about any frightening news​ they hear. It is OK to say people are getting sick, but remind them that following safety steps like hand washing , wearing cloth face coverings, and staying home more will help your family stay healthy.

Recognize your child's feelings. Calmly say, for example, “I can see that you are upset because you can't have a sleepover with your friends right now." Guiding questions can help older children and teens work through issues. (“I know it is disappointing not to be able to do some of the things you did before the pandemic. What are some other ways you can have fun with your friends?")

Keep in touch with loved ones. Children may also worry about a grandparent who is living alone or a relative or friend with an increased risk of getting COVID-19. When safe, physically distanced visits aren't possible, video chats can help ease their anxiety.

Model how to manage feelings. Talk through how you are managing your own feelings. (“I am worried about Grandma since I can't go visit her. I will put a reminder on my phone to call her in the morning and the afternoon until it is safe to see her.")

Tell your child before you leave the house for work or essential errands. In a calm and reassuring voice, tell them where you are going, how long you will be gone, when you will return, and that you are taking steps to stay safe.

Look forward. Tell them that scientists are working hard to figure out how to help people who get sick, how to prevent it, and that things will get better.

Offer extra hugs and say “I love you" more often.

Keep healthy routines
During the pandemic, it is more important than ever to maintain bedtime and other routines. They create a sense of order to the day that offers reassurance in a very uncertain time. All children, including teens, benefit from routines that are predictable yet flexible enough to meet individual needs.

Structure the day. With the usual routines thrown off, establish new daily schedules. Break up schoolwork when possible. Older children and teens can help with schedules, but they should follow a general order, such as:

wake-up routines, getting dressed, breakfast and some active play in the morning, followed by quiet play and snack to transition into schoolwork.

lunch, chores, exercise, some online social time with friends, and then homework in the afternoon.

family time & reading​ before bed.

​A word about bedtimes​
Children often have more trouble with bedtime during any stressful period. Try to keep normal nighttime routines such as Book, Brush, Bed for younger children. Put a family picture by their bed for “ex​​tra love" until morning. Bedtimes can shift some for older children and teens, but it is a good idea to keep it in a reasonable range so the sleep-wake cycle isn't thrown off. Too little sleep makes it more challenging to learn and to deal with emotions. Remember to turn off cell phones and other mobile devices an hour before bedtime.​

Use positive discipline
Everyone is more anxious and worried during the pandemic. Younger children may not have the words to describe their feelings. They're more likely to act out their stress, anxiety or fear through their behavior (which can, in turn, upset parents, particularly if they are already stressed). Older children and teens may be extra irritable as they miss out on normal events they looked forward to and activities they enjoy with their friends.

Some ways you can help your children manage their emotions and behavior:

Redirect bad behavior. Sometimes children misbehave because they are bored or don't know any better. Find something else for them to do.

Creative play. Suggest your children draw pictures of ways your family is staying safe. Make a collage and hang it up to remind everyone. Or, build an indoor fort or castle to keep the germs at bay, bringing in favorite stuffed animals or toys.

Direct your attention. Attention--to reinforce good behaviors and discourage others--is a powerful tool. Notice good behavior and point it out, praising success and good tries. Explaining clear expectations, particularly with older children, can help with this.

Use rewards & privileges to reinforce good behaviors (completing school assignments, chores, getting along with siblings, etc.) that wouldn't normally be given during less stressful times.

Know when not to respond. As long as your child isn't doing something dangerous and gets attention for good behavior, ignoring bad behavior can be an effective way of stopping it.

Use time-outs. This discipline tool works best by warning children they will get a time-out if they don't stop. Remind them what they did wrong in as few words―and with as little emotion―as possible. Then, remove them from the situation for a pre-set length of time (1 minute per year of age is a good guide).

​Special Time In
Even with everyone home together 24/7, set aside some special time with each child. Ideas can include cooking or reading​ together, for example, or playing a favorite game. You choo​se the time, and let your child choose the activity. Just 10 or 20 minutes of your undivided attention, even if only once every few days, will mean a lot to your child. Keep cell phones off or on silent so you don't get distracted.​

Avoid physical punishment. Spanking, hitting, and other forms of physical or “corporal" punishment risks injury and isn't effective. Physical punishment can increase aggression in children over time, fails to teach them to behave or practice self-control, and can even interfere with normal brain development. Corporal punishment may take away a child's sense of safety and security at home, which are especially needed now.

The AAP reminds parents and caregivers never to shake or jerk a child, which could cause permanent injuries and disabilities and even result in death. Tips for calming a​ fussy baby and advice for caregivers who have reached a breaking point can be found here. If you have a friend, relative, or neighbor with the new baby at home, think of ways you can reach out to provide support during the isolation period.​

Take care of yourself. Caregivers also should be sure to take care of themselves physically: eat healthy, exercise and get enough sleep. Find ways to decompress and take breaks. If more than one parent is home, take turns watching the children if possible.

Take a breath. In addition to reaching out to others for help, the AAP recommends parents feeling overwhelmed or especially stressed try to take just a few seconds to ask themselves:

Does the problem represent an immediate danger?

How will I feel about this problem tomorrow?

Is this situation permanent?

In many cases, the answers will deflate the panic and the impulse to lash out physically or verbally at children.​

Remember
Reach out to your pediatrician with any concerns you have about your child's behavioral or emotional well-being and managing your family's stress.
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COVID-19 POSITIVE PCR TEST.DOES IT MEAN YOU ARE INFECTIOUS?
Summary of recommendations from Professor Peter Openshaw from National Heart & Lung Institute, London, UK
1. From the first diagram you can see that people are most infectious on 2 days prior to symptoms (most dangerous state, as patient is asymptomatic with high viral load) and up to day 5.
By 10th day after onset of symptoms patients usually are not contagious, but PCR remains positive for a long time beyond that.
Most current recommendation from CDC is not to perform repeat PCR testing, after 2 weeks of quarantine patient is considered not contagious.
2. And to minimize the exposure to asymptomatic individuals with high viral load, please wear masks! Second diagram
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KIDS MAY NOT BE RECOMMENDED FOR COVID-19 VACCINATION INITIALLY, U.S. CDS SAYS

(Reuters) - The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said on 10/14 that COVID-19 vaccines may not be initially recommended for children, when they become available.

Children, who rarely have severe COVID-19 symptoms, have not yet been tested for any experimental coronavirus vaccine. The CDC said so far early clinical trials have only included non-pregnant adults, noting the recommended groups could change in the future as clinical trials expand to recruit more people.

Pfizer Inc PFE.N has said it will enroll children, who are capable of passing on the virus to high-risk groups, as young as 12 in its large, late-stage COVID-19 vaccine trial, while AstraZeneca AZN.L has said a sub-group of patients in a large trial will test children between five to 12.

There is no vaccine for COVID-19 yet, but a handful of companies such as Pfizer and Moderna Inc MRNA.O are in final-stage trials of their experimental vaccines.

The CDC also said that any coronavirus vaccine would, at least at first, be used under the Food and Drug Administration's emergency use authorization, and that there could be a limited supply of vaccines before the end of 2020.

In case of limited supply, some groups may be recommended to get a COVID-19 vaccine first, the CDC said.

Coronavirus vaccines should be rolled out in four phases, with initial supply going to front-line health workers and first responders, an independent expert panel tapped by top U.S. health officials recommended earlier this month.
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WE ALL WANT THE ANSWERS!

LATEST INTERVIEW WITH DR. FAUCI

Here is a brief summary:

- There is a development of rapid $1 pocket test or COVID-19.
This will be a solution for reopening of schools and other businesses. This is an only way to ease the anxiety among people.
The sensitivity of this test will be less than the PCR-test, but high enough to be safely used.

- There is an evidence that COVID-19 causes the systemic infection and virus might be found in different organs. we do not have enough data yet.

- Rough estimate of mortality rate is 1%. Can not be accurately determined because asymptomatic and mild cases are not being tested. If a lot of people get infected, still a lot will die.

- Herd immunity in NYC is about 22%. In US in average, only 4-5%, very far from the level to stop the pandemic.

- Herd immunity most likely won't be achieved without vaccine. Or if achieved naturally, will take a lot of lives and long period of time.

- Natural and vaccine immunity most likely will wean. How fast? We do not know. Will reinfection cause lighter or more severe symptoms? We do not know.... Hoping for immunity to last at least a season. Booster doses might be required
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STUDY LINKS ZINC LEVELS TO COVID-19 OUTCOMES
Lower levels of zinc were associated with greater inflammation and poorer outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, compared with more healthful levels, researchers reported at the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease's Conference on Coronavirus Disease. Pulmonologist Dr. Len Horovitz of Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City commented that one potential explanation is that zinc may have a protective anti-inflammatory effect. HealthDay News
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CHILDREN ACCOUNT FOR 10% OF US COVID-19 CASES
The US recorded more than 34,000 new COVID-19 cases and 422 fatalities on Tuesday, bringing the total number of infections to more than 6.5 million and deaths to 194,500. Nearly 550,000 children have tested positive for COVID-19 since the pandemic started, accounting for about 10% of all US cases, according to a report from the Children's Hospital Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics.
And please keep in mind that testing rate among kids is significantly lower than in adults. Which means that kids do get infected fairly frequently, but because they are often asymptomatic or with minimal symptoms, they mostly are not being tested, but nevertheless spreading the virus.
Scientists say 121 COVID-19 patients aged 21 and younger have died of COVID-19. Three-quarters of those deaths involved at least one comorbidity, with the most common underlying medical conditions linked to COVID-19 mortality being chronic lung disease, obesity, neurological or developmental disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes
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HOT TOPIC: SCHOOL REOPENING
www.nbclosangeles.com/news/local/calabasas-mayor-wants-to-open-schools-as-la-county-hits-breaks-o...
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CHECK YOUR VITAMIN D LEVEL
Vitamin D deficiency linked to increased COVID-19 risk
A study in JAMA Network Open found vitamin D deficiency was associated with a 77% increased risk of being infected with COVID-19. Researchers tracked the health of 489 patients whose vitamin D status was included in their EHRs before the pandemic started, and they found 22% of 124 patients with insufficient vitamin D levels tested positive for COVID-19, compared with 12% of those with sufficient levels.
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5 COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT KIDS & CLOTH FACE COVERINGS
​​​​​By: Kimberly M. Dickinson, MD, MPH​ & Theresa W. Guilbert, MD, MS, FAAP​​

Along with physically distancing and good hand washing, masks or cloth face coverings are an effective way to help prevent the spread of COVID-19. Some parents may have questions and concerns about cloth face coverings, and we're here to help.

Here are 5 common questions about kids and masks, along with evidence-based information that will put your mind at ease:

1. Can wearing a mask make it harder​ for my child to breathe?
There have been concerns that cloth face coverings can reduce oxygen intake, and can lead to low blood oxygen levels, known as hypoxemia. However, cloth masks are made from breathable materials that will not block the oxygen your child needs. Masks will not affect your child's ability to focus or learn in school. The vast majority of children age 2 or older can safely wear a cloth face covering for extended periods of time, such as the school day or at child care. This includes children with many medical conditions.

2. Can masks interfere with a child's lun​​g development?
No, wearing a cloth face covering will not affect your child's lungs from developing normally. This is because oxygen flows through and around the mask, while blocking the spray of spit and respiratory droplets that may contain the virus. Keeping your child's lungs healthy is important, which includes preventing infections like COVID-19.

3. Do masks trap the carbon dioxide ​that we normally breathe out?
No. There have been false reports that cloth face coverings can lead to carbon dioxide poisoning (known as hypercapnia) from re-breathing the air we normally breathe out. But this is not true. Carbon dioxide molecules are very tiny, even smaller than respiratory droplets. They cannot be trapped by breathable materials like cloth masks. In fact, surgeons wear tight fitting masks all day as part of their jobs, without any harm.

However, children under 2 years of age should not wear masks since they may not be able to remove them without help. Children with severe breathing problems or cognitive impairments may also have a hard time tolerating a face mask and extra precautions may be needed.

4. Can masks lead to a weaker immune​ system by putting the body under stress?
No. Wearing a cloth face covering does not weaken your immune system or increase your chances of getting sick if exposed to the COVID-19 virus. Wearing a cloth face covering, even if you do not have symptoms of COVID-19, helps prevent the virus from spreading.

5. How do masks prevent the ​​spread of COVID-19?
When worn correctly, cloth masks create a barrier that reduces the spray of a person's spit and respiratory droplets. These droplets play a key role in the spread of COVID-19 because they can carry SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Masks also can protect you from others who may have coronavirus but are not showing symptoms and who could come within 6 feet of you, which is how far respiratory droplets can travel when people sneeze or cough or raise their voices.

​In order to be effective, masks should:

Cover both the nose and mouth​​

Fit snugly but comfortably against the sides of the face

Be secured with ear loops or ties

Have multiple layers of fabric

Allow for unrestricted breathing

​Be washed and dried carefully after use​

Another benefit of wearing masks is that they may keep people from touching their mouths and faces, which is another way COVID-19 can be spread. There are many types of masks, but cloths masks are best choice for the general public and families should choose a mask that is most comfortable while still providing a secure fit.

Remem​​ber
Cloth face coverings are an important tool in preventing the spread of COVID-19. They are safe and effective for children over the age of 2 years and adults. Cloth face coverings are especially important when social distancing, or keeping 6 feet away from others, is hard to do. Washing hands, staying home and physical distancing are still the best ways to keep your family safe from COVID-19. But when you go outside your home, wearing a cloth face covering will help keep you and others safe.

Don't hesitate to talk with your child's pediatrician if you have any questions about your child wearing cloth face coverings.
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